Hazel “Miss Sam” Miller was the primary midwife and herbalist of Puerto Viejo and the surrounding areas until the opening of the public health clinic a few decades ago. She began her training as a young child in Nicaragua and expanded her skills through practical experience in remote areas with no doctors. Miss Sam never lost a baby or a mother, however much of her knowledge of midwifery and gynecological care has been lost since the illegalization of home births in the area. The subjugation of her practice demonstrates the controversy between public health policies and international human rights treaties which protect the rights of African descendants in Costa Rica.